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Pollution Prevention and Control Technologies for Plating Operations
Second Edition, March 2009

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Table of Contents

List of Exhibits

SECTION 1 — P2 Technology for Common Metal Finishing Processes
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Rinsing
1.3 Alkaline Cleaning
1.4 Acid Dipping and Pickling
1.5 Anodizing
1.6 Cadmium Plating
1.7 Copper Plating
1.8 Decorative Chromium Plating
1.9 Electroless Nickel Plating
1.10 Hard Chromium Plating
1.11 Nickel Plating
1.12 Tin and Tin-Lead Plating
1.13 Zinc Plating
1.14 Other Metal Finishing Processes

SECTION 2 — Overview of Project Results
2.1 Description of Project
2.2 Overview of Users Survey Results
2.3 Future Survey Efforts of the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences

SECTION 3 — General Waste Reduction Practices
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Pollution Prevention and Source Control
3.3 Good Operating Practices
3.4 Drag-Out Reduction
3.5 Rinse Water Reduction
3.6 Reuse of Treated Wastewater
3.7 Closed-Loop Processing and Zero Discharge
3.8 Other Rinsing Information
3.9 Summary of General Waste Reduction Practices

SECTION 4 — Chemical Recovery
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Atmospheric Evaporators
4.3 Vacuum Evaporators
4.4 Ion Exchange
4.5 Electrowinning
4.6 Electrodialysis
4.7 Reverse Osmosis
4.8 Meshpad Mist Eliminators

SECTION 5 — Chemical Solution Maintenance
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Commonly Applied Preventative and Corrective Bath Maintenance Techniques
5.3 Microfiltration
5.4 Ion Exchange
5.5 Acid Sorption
5.6 Ion Transfer
5.7 Membrane Electrolysis
5.8 Diffusion Dialysis

SECTION 6 — Substitute Technologies
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Product Changes
6.3 Chlorinated Solvents Use Reduction/Elimination
6.4 Cyanide Use Reduction/Elimination
6.5 Cadmium Use Reduction/Elimination
6.6 Chromium Use Reduction/Elimination
6.7 Other Chemical Substitutions

SECTION 7 — Wastewater Treatment
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Conventional Treatment Technologies
7.3 Costs of Conventional Wastewater Treatment
7.4 End-of-Pipe Treatment System Data from the Users Survey
7.5 Alternative Technologies for Metals Removal

SECTION 8 — Off-Site Metals Recycling
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Availability of Metals Recycling Services
8.3 Off-Site Metals Recovery Processes
8.4 Waste Characteristics Requirements
8.5 Off-Site Recycling Costs

Appendix A — NCMS/NAMF Survey Data for End-of-Pipe Equipment

Appendix B — List of Abbreviations

References

List of Exhibits

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