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Pollution Prevention and Control Technologies for Plating Operations
Second Edition, March 2009

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Table of Contents

List of Exhibits

Section 1. P2 Technology for Common Metal Finishing Processes
Exhibit 1-1. Water Use for SGP Facilities
Exhibit 1-2. Water Use for SGP Facilities
Exhibit 1-3. Water Use Benchmarks -- Gallons of Water Discharged Per Dollar of Sales
Exhibit 1-4. Rinse Calculator Data Input Form
Exhibit 1-5. Rinse Calculator Output Diagram
Exhibit 1-6. Merit Partnership Project Conductivity Controller Costs
Exhibit 1-7. Merit Partnership Project Water Use Savings
Exhibit 1-8. Timer Rinse Control
Exhibit 1-9. Strategic Goals Program (SGP) Data -- Pounds of Toxic Organic Chemical Emissions per $1 Million Sales
Exhibit 1-10. Summary for Pollution Prevention Strategy for Alkaline Cleaning
Exhibit 1-11. Diagram of the Silverbackª Model 900
Exhibit 1-12. Diagram of Alkaline Cleaner Recovery Operation
Exhibit 1-13. Diagram of Bio-Cleaner Operation
Exhibit 1-14. Cost Comparison of Alkaline Cleaner Management Options for Various Total Cleaner Capacities
Exhibit 1-15. Breakdown of Annualized Capital and Operating Costs for 12,000 gal./yr.
Exhibit 1-16. Test Results
Exhibit 1-17. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Acid Dipping and Pickling
Exhibit 1-18. Annual Operating Costs Comparison for Disposal and Adsorption Unit
Exhibit 1-19. Diagram of Diffusion Dialysis Unit and Operating Scheme
Exhibit 1-20. Results from EPA Supported Testing of Diffusion Dialysis
Exhibit 1-21. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Anodizing
Exhibit 1-22. Process Control Savings at a Small Anodizing Shop
Exhibit 1-23. Reverse Osmosis Recovery of Nickel Acetate Diagram
Exhibit 1-24. Monthly Cost Savings for RO/Nickel Acetate Installation
Exhibit 1-25. Diagram of a Process Tank with EED Cover
Exhibit 1-26. Acid Purification Unit Operating Conditions
Exhibit 1-27. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Cadmium Plating
Exhibit 1-28. Cadmium Plating Rinse Systems
Exhibit 1-29. Ion Exchange Recovery of Cadmium from Plating Rinse Water
Exhibit 1-30. Operating Cost Comparison for Cadmium Recovery System
Exhibit 1-31. Cadmium Electrowinning Application
Exhibit 1-32. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Copper Plating
Exhibit 1-33. Combined Ion Exchange and Electrowinning System
Exhibit 1-34. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Decorative Chromium Plating
Exhibit 1-35. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Electroless Nickel Plating
Exhibit 1-36. Flow Diagram Showing Continuous Regeneration of EN Solution
Exhibit 1-37. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Hard Chromium Plating
Exhibit 1-38. Diagram of Ion Transfer System Used in Navy Testing
Exhibit 1-39. Typical Operating Parameters for the Reciprocating Ion Exchange System
Exhibit 1-40. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Nickel Plating
Exhibit 1-41. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Tin and Tin—Lead Plating
Exhibit 1-42. Summary of Pollution Prevention Strategy for Zinc Plating

Section 2. Overview of Project Results
Exhibit 2-1. Overview of Project Activities
Exhibit 2-2. Summary of Questionnaire Recipients and Respondents
Exhibit 1-3. List of Manufacturers, Vendors and Recycling Companies that Participated in the Project
Exhibit 2-4. Partial Summary of Facility Characterization Data
Exhibit 2-5(a). Geographical Distribution of Respondents
Exhibit 2-5(b). Shop Age Distribution (year shop commenced metal finishing operations)
Exhibit 2-5(c). Company Size Distribution by Number of Employees
Exhibit 2-6. Distribution of Respondent's Processes
Exhibit 2-7. The Twenty-Five Most Frequently Operated Metal Finishing Processes
Exhibit 2-8. Respondent's Wastewater and Discharge Characterization
Exhibit 2-9. Distribution of Respondents by Type of Discharge
Exhibit 2-10. Average Plating Discharge Rate of Survey Respondents (gallons per day)
Exhibit 2-11. Pollutant Parameters for which Compliance Difficulty was Reported by Respondents
Exhibit 2-12. Ratings for Pollution Prevention Methods and Technologies
Exhibit 2-13. Distribution and Ratings of Chemical Recovery Technologies
Exhibit 2-14. Operational Status of the Chemical Recovery and Bath Maintenance Technologies Purchased by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 2-15. Distribution and Ratings of Bath Maintenance Technologies
Exhibit 2-16. Distribution of End-of-Pipe System Installation Dates
Exhibit 2-17. Identification of Facility Problems and Needs
Exhibit 2-18. Aspects of Pollution Prevention and Control that the Survey Failed to Cover

Section 3. General Waste Reduction Practices
Exhibit 3-1. U.S. EPA's Environmental Management Option Hierarchy
Exhibit 3-2. Examples of Source Reduction Methods
Exhibit 3-3. Waste Handling Methods that are Not Considered Pollution Prevention Or Source Reduction Options
Exhibit 3-4. State Legislation Promoting Pollution Prevention as of March, 1992
Exhibit 3-5. EPA's Pollution Prevention Assessment Procedures
Exhibit 3-6. Summary of Users Survey Data Relating to Good Operating Practices
Exhibit 3-7. Data from the Users Survey Regarding the Categories of Labor Employed and Technical Resources Available
Exhibit 3-8. Material Balance for Chromium Use at Tinker AFB Plating Shop
Exhibit 3-9. Estimations of Drag-Out Generation Presented in the Literature
Exhibit 3-10. Summary of Users Survey Data Relating to Drag-Out Loss Prevention
Exhibit 3-11. Example of Spray Rinsing for Barrel Plating
Exhibit 3-12. Diagram of a Drag-Out Reduction Device Designed for Barrel Plating
Exhibit 3-13. Diagrams showing Common Rinsing Configuration
Exhibit 3-14. Drag-Out Tank Recovery Rates for a Range of Common Conditions
Exhibit 3-15. Examples of Rinsing Arrangements Used By Survey Respondent PS 118
Exhibit 3-16. Summary of Users Survey Data Relating to Rinse Water Reduction
Exhibit 3-17. Conductivities of Typical Plating Solutions
Exhibit 3-18. Rinse Criteria for Permissible Levels of Contamination
Exhibit 3-19. Improved Operating Practices that Reduce Waste Generation
Exhibit 3-20. Drag-Out Reduction Methods that Reduce Waste Generation
Exhibit 3-21. Rinse Water Reduction Methods that Reduce Waste Generation

Section 4. Chemical Recovery
Exhibit 4-1. Distribution and Ratings of Chemical Recovery Technologies
Exhibit 4-2. Reasons Why Respondents Purchased Chemical Recovery Technologies
Exhibit 4-3. Common Commercial Atmospheric Evaporator Used for Chemical Recovery
Exhibit 4-4. Three Primary Configurations for the Application of Atmospheric Evaporation to Chemical Recovery
Exhibit 4-5. Atmospheric Evaporation/Process Matrix
Exhibit 4-6. Commercial Atmospheric Evaporator with Cylindrical Design
Exhibit 4-7. Equipment Costs for Atmospheric Evaporators as a Function of Solution Temperature
Exhibit 4-8. Operating and Maintenance Costs for Atmospheric Evaporators
Exhibit 4-9. Summary of Users Survey Data for Atmospheric Evaporators
Exhibit 4-10. Two Configurations for the Application of Vacuum Evaporators for Chemical Recovery
Exhibit 4-11. Applications of Vacuum Evaporation Identified During the Users and Vendors Surveys
Exhibit 4-12. Classification of Commercially Available Evaporators for Plating Applications According to the Way Water is Vaporized
Exhibit 4-13. Common Vacuum Evaporator Terminology
Exhibit 4-14. Mechanical Vapor Recompression Evaporator/Condenser Schematic
Exhibit 4-15. Utility Requirements for Single-Effect Evaporators
Exhibit 4-16. Double-Effect Evaporation for Chemical Recovery
Exhibit 4-17. Utility Requirements for a Double-Effect Evaporator
Exhibit 4-18. Equipment Costs for Steam Type Vacuum Evaporators
Exhibit 4-19. Equipment Costs for Electric Type Vacuum Evaporators
Exhibit 4-20(a). Operating and Maintenance Costs for Vacuum Evaporators (Segregated Recovery)
Exhibit 4-20(b). Operating and Maintenance Costs for Vacuum Evaporators (Mixed Waste Concentration)
Exhibit 4-21. Summary of Users Survey Data for Ion Exchange Metals Recovery Applications
Exhibit 4-22. Common Configurations for Application of Ion Exchange for Chemical Recovery
Exhibit 4-23. Additional Configuration for the Application of Ion Exchange for Chemical Recovery
Exhibit 4-24. Listing of Ion Exchange Applications Identified from the Users and Vendors Surveys
Exhibit 4-25. Information and Data for Ion Exchange Resins Used for Metal Finishing Applications
Exhibit 4-26. Comparison of Cocurrent and Counterflow Regeneration
Exhibit 4-27. Modular Ion Exchange Equipment
Exhibit 4-28. Ion Exchange Equipment for Lead-Bearing Rinse Waters
Exhibit 4-29(a). Capital Costs for Fully Automatic, Water Recycle Ion Exchange Equipment
Exhibit 4-29(b). Capital Costs for Fully Automatic, Metal Scavenging Ion Exchange Equipment
Exhibit 4-30. Operating and Maintenance Costs for Ion Exchange Systems
Exhibit 4-31. Partial Summary of Users Survey Data for Ion Exchange Metals Recovery Application
Exhibit 4-32. Three Primary Configurations for the Application of Electrowinning for Metal Recovery
Exhibit 4-33. Electrowinning Applications Identified From the Users Survey
Exhibit 4-34. Electromotive Series
Exhibit 4-35. Potential Applications for Electrowinning of Metals Identified From the Vendors Survey and Literature
Exhibit 4-36. Materials of Construction for Electrodes Used for Common Electrowinning Applications
Exhibit 4-37. Diagram of an Electrowinning Unit Employing Reticulate Cathodes
Exhibit 4-38. Example of the Performance of a Reticulated Cathode Electrowinning Unit Treating a Copper Cyanide Bath
Exhibit 4-39(a). Example of Electrowinning Performance on Copper Sulfate Static Rinse
Exhibit 4-39(b). Work Load Through Copper Sulfate Rinse
Exhibit 4-40. Diagram of a Precious Metals Electrowinning In-Tank Unit
Exhibit 4-41. Electrowinning System Applicable to Nickel and Electroless Nickel Plating Operations
Exhibit 4-42. Faraday Table for Common Metals
Exhibit 4-43. Maximum Current Density for Copper Electrowinning
Exhibit 4-44. Capital Costs for Electrowinning Units
Exhibit 4-45. Operating and Maintenance Costs for Electrowinning Equipment
Exhibit 4-46. An Example of Calculating Operating Costs for an Electrowinning Application
Exhibit 4-47. Summary of the Users Survey Data Relative to Electrowinning
Exhibit 4-48. Diagram of an Electrodialysis Process for Nickel Recovery
Exhibit 4-49. Flow Schematics of a Nickel Plating Line Before and After Installing Electrodialysis
Exhibit 4-50. Electrodialysis Membrane Requirements Based on Drag-Out Rate for Common Plating Baths
Exhibit 4-51. Capital Costs for Electrodialysis Recovery Units Applied to Metals Recovery From Rinse Water
Exhibit 4-52. Partial Summary of Users Data for Electrodialysis Recovery Applications
Exhibit 4-53. Diagram of Barrier vs Cross-Flow Filtration
Exhibit 4-54. Common Configuration for a Reverse Osmosis Nickel Recovery Application
Exhibit 4-55. End-of-Pipe Reverse Osmosis Configuration Used by PS 233
Exhibit 4-56. Operational Diagram and System Specifications for Advanced Reverse Osmosis (ARO)
Exhibit 4-57. Advanced Reverse Osmosis (ARO) Application to Chromate Conversion Coating Recovery
Exhibit 4-58. Reverse Osmosis Bench-Scale Test Results for Various Applications
Exhibit 4-59. Diagram and Equipment List for Commercial Reverse Osmosis Filtration and Related Equipment
Exhibit 4-60(a). Capital Costs for Single Pass Reverse Osmosis Systems
Exhibit 4-60(b). Capital Costs for Multi-Pass Reverse Osmosis Systems
Exhibit 4-61. Operating and Maintenance Costs for Reverse Osmosis Equipment
Exhibit 4-62. Partial Summary of Users Data for Reverse Osmosis Recovery Applications
Exhibit 4-63. Meshpad Mist Eliminator Installation Diagram
Exhibit 4-64. Meshpad Mist Eliminator Pad and Wash-Down Arrangement
Exhibit 4-65. Frequency of Use for Various Chromium Emission Control Technologies and Methodologies in 1992
Exhibit 4-66. Meshpad Mist Eliminator Floor Plan View
Exhibit 4-67. Meshpad Mist Eliminator and Scrubber Systems
Exhibit 4-68. Enforcer IIIª Recirculation System
Exhibit 4-69. Capital Costs for Mesh Pad Mist Eliminators
Exhibit 4-70. Operating Costs for Meshpad Mist Eliminators
Exhibit 4-71. Partial Summary of Users Survey Data for Meshpad Eliminators

Section 5. Chemical Solution Maintenance
Exhibit 5-1. Summary of Users Survey Data Addressing the Use of Common Solution Maintenance Techniques
Exhibit 5-2. Diagram Showing Barrier Filtration vs Cross-Flow Membrane Filtration
Exhibit 5-3. Example of Microfiltration Application from the Literature
Exhibit 5-4. Example of Semi-Aqueous Cleaning Line Employing Microfiltration
Exhibit 5-5. Schematic of a Cleaner Purification System
Exhibit 5-6. Capital Costs for Microfiltration Applied to Degreaser/Cleaner Bath Maintenance
Exhibit 5-7. Return on Investment for a Cleaner Purification System Using Microfiltration
Exhibit 5-8. Common Configurations for Application of Ion Exchange for Bath Maintenance
Exhibit 5-9(a). Commercial Ion Exchange Bath Maintenance System Specifications for Chromic Acid Bath Maintenance Systems
Exhibit 5-9(b). Commercial Ion Exchange System Specifications for Trivalent Chromium Bath Maintenance Systems
Exhibit 5-10. Capital Costs for Ion Exchange Bath Maintenance Equipment
Exhibit 5-11. Summary of Users Survey Data for Ion Exchange Bath Maintenance Applications
Exhibit 5-12. Selected Users Survey Cost Data for Ion Exchange Bath Maintenance Applications Currently in Use
Exhibit 5-13. Diagram of APUª Operating Cycle
Exhibit 5-14. Typical Layout for an Acid Sorption Process
Exhibit 5-15. Typical Results for Application of an APUª
Exhibit 5-16. Capital Costs for Sulfuric Acid Anodizing Bath Maintenance Using Acid Sorption
Exhibit 5-17. Equipment Costs for Acid Sorption Systems for Non-Sulfuric Acid Anodizing Applications
Exhibit 5-18. Selected Users Survey Cost Data for Ion Exchange Bath Maintenance Applications Currently in Use
Exhibit 5-19. Summary of Users Survey Data for Acid Sorption
Exhibit 5-20. Two Common Ion Transfer Configurations for Chromium Bath Purification
Exhibit 5-21. Application of Ion Transfer for Chromium Recovery
Exhibit 5-22(a). APS-3 Copper Removal
Exhibit 5-22(b). Nickel Removal
Exhibit 5-22(c). APS-3 Zinc Removal
Exhibit 5-22(d). APS-3 Total Cation Removal
Exhibit 5-23. APS-3-SA Ion Transfer System
Exhibit 5-24. System Specifications for APS Ion Transfer Systems
Exhibit 5-25. Selected Users Cost Data for Ion Transfer Bath Maintenance and Recovery Applications Currently in Use
Exhibit 5-26. Summary of Users Survey Data for Ion Transfer
Exhibit 5-27. Configurations for Application of Membrane Electrolysis for Bath Maintenance
Exhibit 5-28. Comparison of Two and Three Compartment Membrane Electrolysis Cells
Exhibit 5-29. Performance of Membrane Electrolysis Unit for Chromic Acid Bath Maintenance
Exhibit 5-30. Diagram of Membrane Electrolysis System 125
Exhibit 5-31. Capital Costs for Chrome Plating Bath Maintenance Using Membrane Electrolysis
Exhibit 5-32. Operating Costs For Chromic Acid Bath Maintenance Using Membrane Electrolysis
Exhibit 5-33. Summary of the Users Data for Membrane Electrolysis Bath Maintenance Applications
Exhibit 5-34. Diagram of Diffusion Dialysis Membrane Process for Acid Bath Maintenance
Exhibit 5-35. Reported Recovery Results for Diffusion Dialysis Applications
Exhibit 5-36. Example of Diffusion Dialysis Application to an Anodizing Bath
Exhibit 5-37. Capital Costs for Diffusion Dialysis Systems

Section 6. Process Substitution
Exhibit 6-1. Solvent Use Data from the Users Survey
Exhibit 6-2. Distribution of Solvent Usage from 1980 to 1993 by Shop Age
Exhibit 6-3. Average Solvent Usage Rate Per Application from 1980 to 1993
Exhibit 6-4. Chemical Substitutions to Reduce or Eliminate Cyanide Usage
Exhibit 6-5. Chemical Substitutions to Reduce or Eliminate Cadmium Usage
Exhibit 6-6. Chemical Substitutions to Reduce or Eliminate Chromium Usage
Exhibit 6-7. Other Chemical Substitutions Made for Environmental Purposes

Section 7. Wastewater Treatment
Exhibit 7-1. Conventional End-of-Pipe Treatment System
Exhibit 7-2. Pretreatment Standards for the Electroplating Category (40 CFR 413)
Exhibit 7-3. Pretreatment Standards for the Electroplating Category (40 CFR 433)
Exhibit 7-4. Chromium Reduction Treatment Unit
Exhibit 7-5. Effect of pH on Chromium Reduction
Exhibit 7-6. Schematic of a Two-Stage Treatment Process for Cyanide Destruction
Exhibit 7-7. Response Curves of Available Electrodes for Cyanide to Cyanate Oxidation
Exhibit 7-8. Common Complexing Agents Found in Electroplating Wastewaters
Exhibit 7-9. Wastewater Treatment Configurations Used by Several Respondents to the Users Survey
Exhibit 7-10. Solubility of Metal Hydroxides as a Function of pH
Exhibit 7-11. Process Schematic of a Single Stage Neutralizer
Exhibit 7-12. Diagram and Description of a Plate Settler
Exhibit 7-13. Diagram and Description of a Polishing Filter
Exhibit 7-14. Diagrams of Plate and Frame Filter Press Components
Exhibit 7-15. Sludge Generation and Disposal Data from the Users Survey
Exhibit 7-16. Capital Costs for Conventional End-of-Pipe Unit Operations
Exhibit 7-17. Capital Costs for Multimedia Polishing Filters
Exhibit 7-18. Filter Press Volume or Daily Sludge Dryer Capacity (cubic feet)
Exhibit 7-19. Operating Costs for Conventional Wastewater Treatment
Exhibit 7-20. Cost Data for Common Wastewater Treatment Reagents
Exhibit 7-21. Cost Data for Common Wastewater Treatment Reagents Used by Respondents to the Users Survey
Exhibit 7-22. Example Calculations of Estimated Treatment Reagent Use
Exhibit 7-23. End-of-Pipe Treatment Equipment Data of Survey Respondents
Exhibit 7-24. End-of-Pipe Treatment Operating Costs of Survey Respondents
Exhibit 7-25. Annual Treatment Reagent Use Data
Exhibit 7-26. Available Wastestream Characterization Data from the Users Survey
Exhibit 7-27. Common Configurations for Application of Ion Exchange to End-of-Pipe Treatment
Exhibit 7-28. Centralized Waste Treatment Charges for Two Respondents to the Users Survey
Exhibit 7-29. Summary of Users Survey Data for Ion Exchange EOP Treatment
Exhibit 7-30. Contributions of Total Suspended Solids to Metal Discharges
Exhibit 7-31. End-of-Pipe Treatment System Employing Microfiltration
Exhibit 7-32. EOP Membrane System Performance Data
Exhibit 7-33. Capital and Operating Costs (1994) for EOP Microfiltration Systems
Exhibit 7-34. Partial Summary of the Users Survey Data for EOP Microfiltration Systems
Exhibit 7-35. End-of-Pipe Treatment System Employing Microfiltration Used by PS 007
Exhibit 7-36. End-of-Pipe Treatment System Employing Microfiltration Used by PS 105
Exhibit 7-37. End-of-Pipe Treatment System Employing Ultrafiltration Used by PS 233 (zero discharge)
Exhibit 7-38. EOP Evaporator System Configurations Used by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 7-39. Partial Summary of the Users Survey Data for EOP Evaporation Technology
Exhibit 7-40. Residuals Data for EOP Evaporation Technology

Section 8. Off-Site Metals Recycling
Exhibit 8-1. Summary of Users Survey Data for Off-Site Recycling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludges (F006)
Exhibit 8-2. Summary of Users Survey Data for Off-Site Recycling of Spent Baths and Miscellaneous Wastes
Exhibit 8-3. Locations of Off-Site Recycle Companies that Accept Electroplating Wastes 364
Exhibit 8-4. Preferred Characteristics and Actual Analyses for Wastes Accepted by Off-Site Metals Recycling Firms
Exhibit 8-5. Analytical Data for F006 Sludges Provided by Respondents to the Users Survey
Exhibit 8-6. Average Analysis of 513 Selected F006 Sludges Accepted for Recycling

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